Jade ware of Sihui City, Guangdong Province, China
One of the four major jade wholesale markets in Guangdong
Sihui, together with Guangzhou, Pingzhou and Jieyang, is the largest jade processing base in China. It is located in Sihui, a county-level city of Zhaoqing City, Guangdong Province, about 80 kilometers away from Guangzhou. You can take bus from Guangdong Provincial Station, Yaokou, Fangcun and Tianhe to Sihui Hotel; You can also take a minibus to Hualin International Plaza before 6 p.m. or 1 a.m., about an hour and a half by car (the fare of this route is cheap). In 2003, Sihui City was awarded the title of "Home of Chinese Jade", and the Jade City became the abbreviation of Sihui City.
It is understood that by 2014, Sihui has more than 800 jade shops, more than 300 processing plants and nearly 100000 employees. Sihui jade articles are mainly middle and low grade products, with jadeite pendants, jadeite ornaments and jadeite beads as the main products; The processing capacity and price of finished jadeite products are the most advantageous and competitive in the country. Because of its low price, it has already won the favor of jadeite operators in Taiwan, Hong Kong and other countries.
Sihui Jade Street is divided into three parts: Jade City, Jade Street and Jade Tianguang Market. Among them, the Jade City and Jade Street are interlaced, mainly shops; Tianguang Market is about 300 meters away from the Jade Street, which is the most distinctive place of Sihui jade.
China's jade originated from the late Neolithic Age, about 7000 years ago, flourished in the Warring States Period and the Han Dynasty, and flourished in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The jade processing of Sihui also has a long history. As early as the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, some people in Sihui set up "family workshops" to engage in jade carving and processing. By the 1950s and 1960s, a number of jade processing plants had been set up in the Fourth National Congress of the People's Republic of China, and the jade processing industry had developed rapidly. The jade processing technology and quality had improved rapidly, and the variety was more complete. At that time, it became one of the few places in Guangdong Province to produce jade series products on a large scale. Some jade products were also rated as famous and high-quality products in Guangdong Province, and have become quite famous in the province.
After the reform and opening up, due to various reasons, jade enterprises changed production, and workers in the original enterprises opened jade processing and sales stores in the area of Shawei Road in the county seat, which naturally formed a "jade street". Since then, jade processing plants, processing shops and family workshops in Sihui have developed at an amazing speed. By the late 1980s, Sihui had more than 1000 jade processing households, with more than 8000 employees and an annual output value of more than 100 million yuan. A new jade processing industry with unique characteristics has initially formed.
By the middle and late 1990s, under the strong support and guidance of the Sihui Municipal Party Committee and the municipal government, the Sihui jade industry had been further developed, and specialized jade markets such as Jade Street and Jade City with a certain scale and grade had been built, attracting a large number of merchants to invest and trade in jade, enjoying a high reputation in China and even in Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia and other regions. At the same time, in order to expand their business, the jade merchants in Sihui have spontaneously formed the "Jade Tianguang Market" market. Before dawn every day, the "Tianguang Market" is brightly lit, crowded with people, and bustling, with an endless stream of merchants coming to buy jade. The Sihui Jade Market has gradually become a well-known distribution center for jade products, and has become the largest wholesale market for jade products in Guangdong. Through the inheritance of jade carving technology for several generations and the support of previous party committees and governments, the jade industry of the Fourth National Congress has been developing and growing, and has formed its own characteristics in jade processing, jade product modeling, and jade sales. By the end of 2006, it has developed into more than 1000 jade shops, more than 400 jade processing plants, more than 4000 jade processing plants, more than 80000 employees, more than 7000 tons of jade processing, and an annual output value of more than 1.5 billion yuan, It has become a major characteristic industry in the economic development of the four conferences. Sihui has become an important jade processing base in China and one of the four jade processing bases in Guangdong Province. It is also a well-known jade processing and distribution center in China and the largest jade wholesale market in Guangdong. In 2014, most of the jadeware sales markets in Guangzhou, Yangzhou, Shanghai and Beijing came from Sihui. In 2003, Sihui City was awarded the title of "Home of Chinese Jade", and the Jade City became the abbreviation of Sihui City. The prosperity of Sihui jade industry has also led to the development of trade, tourism, hotels, catering and other industries.
The jade of his mountain is a weapon of four abilities
At the end of the Qing Dynasty, many jade craftsmen of the court were scattered among the people. Some jade craftsmen "flew south" to Guangzhou to manage the jade business, and some young farmers from the Four Societies followed them as apprentices. Since then, in order to avoid the scourge of war, many people have returned to Sihui's hometown. These people have also brought jade processing technology back to Sihui and gradually developed. By the late 1980s, there were more than 1000 jade processing households in Sihui, with more than 8000 employees and an annual output value of more than 100 million yuan. A unique jade processing industry was initially formed, and a jade street integrating jade processing and sales was formed. Jade and jewelers from all over the country and even Southeast Asia have come to Sihui to trade jade. People from Putian, Fujian, and Nanyang, Henan, who have a long tradition of carving arts and crafts, smell the business opportunities of the development of jade industry in Sihui, and have come to Sihui to "seek gold", greatly improving the carving technology and refinement level of the jade industry in Sihui.
According to statistics, by 2006, the number of jade shops in Sihui has grown to nearly 1000, more than 400 jade processing factories, more than 4000 jade processing operators, and more than 80000 employees (including about 40000 local people in Sihui, about 20000 people in Putian, Fujian, and about 20000 people in Nanyang, Henan). The annual processing volume of jade has reached more than 7000 tons, and the annual sales volume has exceeded 1.5 billion yuan. Walking in the Sihui Jade Street, you can hear the sound of jade everywhere. The "hometown of jade" is not famous.
"Stones from other mountains can be made into jade by the four associations". The four associations without jade minerals have the reputation of "the hometown of Chinese jade". The jade raw materials of Sihui are mostly from the jadeite jade of Myanmar. The jadeite jade products produced by Sihui are complete, including ornaments, playpieces, pendants, ornaments, etc., with various styles and high quality, enjoying high popularity at home and abroad. The products are exported to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, as well as Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia and other regions. With the development of the jade industry in Sihui, a large number of jade carving craftsmen have been cultivated. The jade products produced by Sihui are ingenious in concept and exquisite in workmanship. Many products have been awarded the "Heavenly Craft Award" for Chinese jade and stone carving works; At the China Art Expo, the four fairs accounted for the majority of the gold and excellent works of jewelry and jade.
As the world's most potential jewelry production and consumption country, with the deepening of reform and opening up and the accelerated development of the market economy, China's jewelry industry has increasingly become a new bright spot to drive economic growth. The combination of jade and other jewelry is also closer, and the jade industry has a broad prospect for development. The development of the jade industry in our city is still in the growth stage. The production and sales of jade products are mostly self-employed, lacking brand awareness, and failing to form large-scale production and enterprise management. The market competitiveness is not strong enough. In order to adapt to the development of the situation, the municipal party committee and the municipal government of the Fourth CPC Committee proposed the development goal of the jade industry to scale, standardization and high-end to achieve the upgrading of the jade industry. First, strengthen guidance and support. Support a number of key enterprises, encourage key enterprises to expand production scale, improve management level, establish brands, and use the effect of brands to radiate and drive more enterprises and self-employed households. The second is to build a platform and strengthen the promotion. Make full use of various publicity channels to carry out vigorous publicity. Through organizing and holding jade product fairs, order fairs, expositions, seminars and other activities, we will continue to open up new markets, strengthen external exchanges and cooperation, expand external influence, and raise awareness. Third, optimize the industrial layout and improve the supporting functions. By expanding the supply of raw materials and product sales, the jade industry chain will be further expanded, strengthened and extended. At the same time, we will gradually establish and improve professional functional areas such as jade trading, jade processing and product sales, and constantly improve functional supporting facilities. Fourth, strengthen talent training. Through strengthening the cooperation with colleges and universities, we have set up an internship base for students majoring in jewelry and jade and a training base for jade processing technology in the Fourth National Congress, strengthened the training of jade carving technical personnel, and constantly expanded the jade carving technical personnel team. At the same time, actively organize the professional title evaluation of jade carving craftsmen, cultivate more senior professional talents, and improve the level and level of jade carving craft.
Experience and practice
For a long time, the production and sales of jadeware in Sihui are all self-employed, and the technology is relatively primitive. The decentralized management mode has obviously not adapted to the needs of the development of market economy. In order to support and guide the jade industry from small to large, from weak to strong, and constantly to scale and upgrade, Sihui City adheres to the development policy of "government guidance, policy support, scientific management, and market standardization", and takes the development of the jade industry as an important work in the development of Sihui economy, and takes practical and effective support measures.
First, increase policy support and create a good soft environment. Encourage more people to engage in jade processing industry, encourage those who set up "family workshops" to set up jade processing plants and expand the scale. Actively coordinate with relevant departments to provide convenience in terms of capital, site and facilities for jade dealers, and actively solve difficulties and problems encountered in production, operation and sales.
The second is to continuously improve the hard environment construction. Faced with the vigorous and rapidly developing jade industry, the Sihui Municipal Government has successively built specialized jade markets such as Jade Street and Jade City with a certain scale and grade, created a good business environment, and gradually guided the jade industry to scale, marketization and industrialization. In 2004, foreign capital was introduced to build Sihui International Jade City. With a planned area of 160000 square meters, the Jade City is the first large-scale jade trading city in China that integrates jade trading, jade processing and product exhibition. The jade trading area, jade processing area and trade area have been completed and put into use.
Third, establish industrial organizations and strengthen industrial management. In order to better strengthen the communication and contact between the government, the jade industry and jade practitioners, safeguard the vital interests of the industry and practitioners, improve the industry's own management level, and promote the healthy and orderly development of the jade industry, in 2002, with the support of the municipal party committee and the municipal government, Sihui Jade Chamber of Commerce was established.
Fourth, constantly strengthen the promotion and brand awareness. Make full use of various publicity channels to publicize the long history of the Sihui jade industry and the achievements achieved over the past two thousand years, actively promote exquisite jade products, and organize jade merchants to participate in the jewelry and jade expo and trade fair by holding the Sihui jade product exhibition, order meeting and other activities, and constantly explore new markets and improve the popularity of the Sihui jade industry. In order to create an external environment that is more conducive to the development of jade industry and expand the popularity of Sihui jade brand, in 2003, it declared to the state and won the title of "hometown of Chinese jade". At the same time, we will further expand our external influence by holding large-scale activities such as the Jade Culture Festival and the Jade Expo every year.
Fifth, strengthen the supervision of the jade market and maintain the order of the jade market. Sihui Jade Testing Center was established to provide pre-sale and after-sales services for customers. Carry out the selection activity of "Honest Business Store" to guide jade business owners to operate in good faith and in accordance with the law. We will strengthen supervision and inspection of the jade market, crack down on the sale of fake and shoddy products, maintain market order and protect the legitimate rights and interests of consumers.
Sixth, strengthen the training of talents and improve the technological level. The Sihui Municipal Party Committee and the municipal government have attached great importance to the cultivation of jade carving talents, established the Sihui Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (Jade Processing Industry) Training Base, regularly held jade carving technology training courses, invited domestic famous craft artists and technicians with rich carving experience to teach, and continuously improved the art appreciation and carving technology level of carving technicians. At the same time, the qualification of jade carving professional technicians is evaluated, and the jade carving craftsmen with high carving technology level are given special allowance treatment by the municipal government to continuously cultivate and expand the jade carving technical talent team